The possibility for multiple IT industries to administer mobile applications for various services to mobile customers has increased due to the expanding demand for mobile app development. Modern mobile applications are programs that run and work on cutting-edge phones, tablets, as well as other gadgets like fast internet, TV, and various home automation gadgets. in this blog, we will discuss around Best 50+ Programming Languages for Mobile App Development for 2023.
The need for these language-skilled workers is evolving along with the industry’s shifting requirements. Scripting languages are constantly developing and changing. The ideal programming language to use for creating mobile apps primarily relies on the computer system you are using. The top programming languages will be covered in this article. Revenue from smartphone apps is anticipated to surpass $935 billion by 2023.
- Types of Mobile Application
- Best Programming Language for mobile app development
- Best Programming Language For iOS Mobile App Development
- Best Programming Language for Developing Android Mobile Apps
- Best Programming Language for Developing Both Android & iOS Apps
- Best Languages for developing mobile apps for the web platform
- General purpose languages (for both Android and iOS)
- How to choose the best programming language for app development?
Types of Mobile Application
According to the coding language used, we may categorize the mobile app development into three groups:
- Native programs support only one platform or OS. Web apps are responsive versions of websites offered through a mobile browser and may work on any smartphone or OS.
- Hybrid software combines features from native and internet apps. However, they are incorporated into native apps, which may be purchased from the Google Play Store or have their icons.
- PWAs perform comparably to native app performance across devices by utilizing the features and APIs of web browsers. A certain kind of webpage that might be included in your message is designed to appear to be a web service. PWAs operate quickly across all markets and device kinds.
|Factor||Native App||Hybrid App||Progressive Web App|
|Development Languages||Native only||Native and web or web only||Web-only|
|Performance||Best and fast||Good||Poor|
|Access to Device Features||Access to all device features||Access to device features via plugins||Access to device features via HTML5|
|Code Updates||Regular updates||Doesn’t impact||Doesn’t impact|
|Limitations||None||Access to hardware features is via plugins||Limited hardware features|
|Security concerns||Best security features||More prone to attacks||More prone to attacks|
|Native API access||Complete||Partial to high||Low|
Native Mobile Application
Native applications have been created specifically for the iOS operating system of mobile devices. You could thus have native Android or native iOS mobile applications in addition to most other operating systems. Since they are exclusively made for one system, you should utilize Blackberry software on an Android smartphone or an iPhone app on a Windows mobile.
The creation of native apps may be done using high-level programming techniques. Examples include Java, Kotlin, Python, Swift, Objective-C, C++, and React.
Pros of Native Apps
Due to their single-minded approach, native apps are speedier and more trustworthy in terms of reliability. They frequently use the smartphone’s resources better than other mobile apps. Native applications use the device’s built-in graphical user interface to provide users with a more responsive web design.
In addition, native applications have access to a wide range of hardware features, such as Wifi, phonebook connections, file browser, NFC, and more, since they are directly connected to the smartphone’s hardware.
Native App Cons
The problem with native applications is that once you start making them, you have to put in extra effort for each of the different platforms. The software you create for one platform cannot be used on another. As a result, costs increase without considering the effort needed to maintain and update the technology for each edition.
Each time the software is updated, the user must reload the program and automatically update the file. It suggests native apps eat up storage on the smartphone’s hard drive.
Hybrid Mobile Application
Another choice is a hybrid application. The interface of these online programs is identical to that of native ones. They are online apps designed to look natural, even though they may have a main screen app icon, homepage layouts, rapid performance, and even the ability to function offline.
Modern technology in hybrid apps, web technologies, and native APIs are integrated. Their development uses Ionic, HTML5, Swift, and other programming languages.
Hybrid Apps Pros
A hybrid app might be made quicker and less expensive than a native app. Therefore, a hybrid app might act as a minimum viable product or a proof of concept for a native app. They also provide users with an easy user experience and load rapidly. They are ideal for usage in countries with slower broadband access. Finally, because they have a shared code base, there is substantially less software to handle.
Hybrid App Cons
Speed and agility are two qualities of native applications that hybrid apps might not have.
Progressive Web App (PWA)
Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) are extensions of websites that you may install on your laptops or desktop computers and utilize much like an app. PWAs deliver performance similar to native apps across devices by employing web browser APIs and functionalities. Based on imitating a web service, a specific type of webpage may be put on your connection. PWAs work rapidly, irrespective of market Systems and device types.
- They use incredibly little data – A PWA conversion may lower an app’s size from 500 KB to 10 MB.
- PWAs are updated in a manner akin to web pages. They are instantly updated each time you use them.
- Since PWAs are nothing more than web pages, deployment is not required. When to “install,” anything is up to the user.
- PWAs may be distributed easily by simply supplying their URL.
Cons of PWA
- Not all features offered by computer operating systems can be helpful.
- A few hardware connection difficulties with PWAs might arise.
- The default websites of certain manufacturers might not provide comprehensive help.
- It is incompatible with recent hardware advancements (like fingerprint scanners).
- Significant re-engagement features like adding to the start menu and notifications are exclusive to Android.
Related Post: Best Mobile App Development Frameworks in 2022
Best Programming Language for mobile app development
Like any other computer program, the best programming language for creating applications should include a set of textual structures for authoring application code. Today, several application frameworks are accessible. Your company’s goals, the features of the computer system you choose as the base, the kind of software, and its requirements may all significantly influence the approach you choose.
Remember that obtaining cash from angel investors is difficult. Startups for apps are viewed as risky. Anyone can have an idea, after all.
To demonstrate to investors the commercial potential of your software, you must be completely prepared. To demonstrate your ideas, you ought to have some sort of prototype, proof of concept, or minimal viable product (MVP). Mobile development may make use of a variety of mobile app development services. The main programming languages for Android and iOS mobile apps are therefore covered in this article.
A multi-paradigm, all-purpose programming language called Swift is used to create iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, watchOS, and iOS. Apple released it in 2014 to give developers a powerful language to create iOS apps. According to Swift.org, the language was developed to be safe, swift, and expressive.
The compiler-based programming language Objective-C made its debut in the 1980s. It became one of the most widely used programming languages for creating apps for iOS and OS X after being purchased by Apple. When Swift debuted in 2014, several developers stopped using this trustworthy and robust code.
Java is one of the top, highly structured, object-oriented, and most popular programming languages used to create mobile apps. It frequently comes in second to Python in popularity rankings from the IEEE Range of the Spectrum (2020) and TIOBE (2021).
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Google has recognized Kotlin as the principal language for creating Android apps as of 2019. When developing Android apps, the cross-platform programming language Kotlin might take the place of Java. It was also released as a second “official” Java language in 2017. Kotlin is compatible with Java and makes use of the Java program.
Developers of Android apps became interested in Scala (Android) because of its extensive list of new features for the native JAVA language. The development of Scala, a hybrid object-oriented scripting language, focused on irreversibility and other programming trends.
Flutter (One of the Best Programming Languages for all kinds of mobile apps)
The Google Flutter Development Kit (SDK) would be a free and open-source tool for building cross-platform software devices. Using a shared platform-independent framework, Flutter enables developers to build high-performance, scalable Android or iOS infrastructure with aesthetically beautiful and practical interface design.
Lua (Cross Platform)
The rapid and effective language Lua was used to develop several well-known companies, including Angry Birds. For Amazon Fire, Microsoft, iOS, Android, Apple TV, Fire TV, Android TV, and other platforms, you may make applications and 2D games inside of Corona.
Dart (Cross Platform)
The open-source software Dart powers the Flutter architecture, which has gained a lot of popularity for its ability to quickly create beautiful and functional apps for the web, desktops, and smartphones. Dart primarily aims to make UI design for programmers simpler with features like hot-reload, which enables developers to examine changes instantly while building the app.
React Native (Cross Platform)
Among other things, make an effort for busy small- to medium-sized business owners. Recall to pick up the stack of tacks the next time.
Apache Cordova (Cross Platform)
Xamarin (Cross Platform)
Xamarin offers unrestricted access to Microsoft APIs and tools and native Android and iOS app development. For any application, it may therefore provide speed and usability that are almost native. It is a strong justification for choosing Xamarin-based software over hybrid alternatives.
Rust (Cross Platform)
Systems software called Rust (Cross Platform) may be used to do operations similar to C and C++ with much better memory safety. Now that Android is a supported operating system, one of the biggest advantages of Rust programming language is that it is handy for writing scripts or applications.
Ruby (Cross Platform)
Businesses appreciate the Ruby on Rails architecture because it is so affordable. Hire costs for Ruby on Rails developers are lower than for developers of other technologies. Since creation is rapid, creating an application per hour is inexpensive. It saves money and aids in maintaining a competitive edge for firms.
The Corona (Cross Platform)
With the help of the software development kit Corona, Lua may be used to construct Android apps. Its two control modes are the Corona Native and Corona Simulation model. The Corona Simulation model is used to construct apps directly, as opposed to Corona Native, which merges Lua code with merely an Android Development project to generate apps with native capabilities.
Perl (Cross Platform)
PERL is a well-liked programming language for developing dynamic web pages and online applications. PERL compiles itself before every execution. Perl interpreters and manuals are readily available for UNIX, VMS, OS/2, Amiga, VMS, MS/DOS, Macintosh, and other software systems, making it a very flexible platform. Both traditional and object-oriented (OO) programming are possible with the help of PERL’s user-friendly development interface. Additionally, it is pretty thorough and efficient.
Scratch (Cross Platform)
With the help of the free object-oriented mobile application (SDK) known as Scratch, kids between the ages of 8 and 16 may create animations, virtual stories, games, and music.
C++ (General Purpose)
Apps for Android may be made in C++ using the Android Native Software Platform (NDK). Because an application cannot be developed wholly in C++, the NDK would be used to implement parts of the product in native C++ code. The C++ code libraries for the application are now simpler to utilize.
Python (General Purpose)
Although Python is not supported natively by Android, it may still be the most acceptable language for creating Android apps. Python programs may be converted into Android applications, which can run on Android apps via various techniques.
HTML5 (General Purpose)
XML (General Purpose)
Since XML can be expanded, you can create self-descriptive components or languages specific to your applications. Users can save the data using XML regardless of how it is displayed. The data shouldn’t be displayed.
Explore More: Native vs Hybrid Mobile App Development 2023
C (General Purpose)
C has swiftly replaced Java as the top language for developers to use when building iOS apps. If you want to develop iOS apps, it is one of the best scripting languages to consider. The prevalence of Objective-C has declined after Swift’s release.
GoLang/Go (General Purpose)
By reducing awkwardness and speed and enhancing the flexibility and efficiency of interactions, the Go language claims to improve programming. Golang is a programming language aiming to produce software that can use cutting-edge innovations like cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and machine learning.
R Programming (General Purpose)
R may develop into one of the best programming languages for creating spectacular animations, graphs, and many other UI elements for mobile apps. Data visualization is essential. The language also allows for the calculation of statistics.
C# (General Purpose)
The similarity between C# and Java makes it ideal for making Android apps. In C# and Java, garbage picking is used to lessen the possibility of memory management. Compared to Java, Csyntax #’s is also more understandable and straightforward, making it easier to work with.
jQuery (General Purpose)
jQuery Mobile is an HTML5-based user interface solution for building flexible websites and applications that run on all Android phones, tablets, and desktop platforms. It is built on the dependable jQuery or jQuery UI core. It includes Ajax movement with webpage modifications, touching interactions, and a range of widgets.
QML (General Purpose)
QML is a general-purpose programming language and user interface standard. It helps engineers and designers produce apps with incredibly effective motion graphics that are smooth and aesthetically beautiful.
ActionScript (General Purpose)
Thanks to ActionScript, programmers can now create on-screen experiences (such as games, exhibits, and e-commerce apps) that can respond to user input from the computer system. An event-based paradigm, such as ActionScript, would imply that, like in real life, occurrences lead to actions.
WebAssembly may use any computer API because it is a standards-based client-side bespoke software platform, especially PWA APIs required for the tasks: without a network connection, loading quickly. Functioning in a different app doorway, outside of a browser window.
Best Programming Language For iOS Mobile App Development
To develop apps for the iPhone, iPad, or Smart Watch, you must have a solid understanding of iOS development. Depending on the programming alternatives for iOS development, we’ll talk about the best language for app development throughout this piece and suggest one for your next iOS application.
What coding may languages be used to develop iOS mobile applications? The leading development environments for iOS apps are listed below.
Since its release, Swift has become one of the most frequently used programming languages for developing iOS, iPadOS, macOS, WatchOS, and other mobile operating systems. Apple introduced it in 2014 to replace Objective C, but iOS developers have heavily utilized it.
Swift is the primary programming language used by the iOS operating system. Swift was developed and launched by Apple in 2014. In December 2015, Apple published Swift, mostly under Apache License 2.0. In addition to iOS, Swift is a piece of software utilized by macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS.
Before Swift, Objective-C was the primary language for iOS programming. It would be an essential programming language for creating apps. Since Objective C was 30 years old, the terminology did not satisfy modern standards. Modern high-level programming languages like Swift offer dynamic, secure, late-blocking, and extension features.
Best Programming Language for Developing Android Mobile Apps
It’s time to investigate which programming languages are most frequently utilized to build mobile applications. Do programming languages used to create apps differ from those used to design and create other products? Let’s look into the languages needed for creating apps.
Since its debut, Java has emerged as the preferred language for developing mobile apps for Google’s Android platform. Java is widely popular software that facilitates cross-platform development and makes it simple to move applications across multiple operating systems and devices.
Kotlin, a modern procedural language software platform that improves productivity, programmer pleasure, and program integrity, is used in over 60% of professional Android app development. Kotlin Multiplatform Mobile is an SDK for building apps for iOS and Android. It offers all the benefits of creating native and cross-platform apps.
Functional and object-oriented development are combined in Scala, a concise, high-level language. Static categories in Scala help solve issues with excessively complex applications. The JVM was the foundation for the Android platform’s virtual machine. While it is not an exact clone, it is incredibly similar. As a result, numerous approaches exist to creating Android applications in Scala.
Best Programming Language for Developing Both Android & iOS Apps
These days, picking the right software package is essential for creating cross-platform devices, iOS, or portable server-side apps. It is challenging for company owners, entrepreneurs, and developers of mobile applications to choose the ideal scripting language due to the sheer amount of options accessible. As a result, this lesson will explain the major programming languages used to create iOS and Android apps.
Flutter has emerged as one of the best solutions to make apps for Android and iOS without having to construct a different framework for each platform. Before being launched, these apps’ handset versions were made mainly for each platform and function as proper native software on Android and iPhone handsets.
Using Lua, typical applications’ functionality may be increased, or innovations and functions can be implemented. Popular Lua-using software, games, and services include Dark Souls, Fable II, Garry’s Modification, Wireshark, VLC, Apache, and Nginx Server.
The Dart scripting language has the second-busiest development community behind Java. It may be utilized to create entertaining apps for IT platforms like the web, Android, IoT, AR, and VR.
Apache Cordova is not exactly a programming language. Instead, it is a container that wraps all the HTML scripts defining each UI element, the features, and the functions of the concerned application. It is an open-source platform that offers more leverage to the developers.
Xamarin is another outstanding programming language using which you can develop iOS and Android applications with ease. It is based on .NET and helps in coding the best apps. It comprises base libraries with which developers can work on datasets and files and an editor tool that is compatible with Docker, Linux, MacOS, and Windows.
With wonderful documentation and an easy-to-use compiler, the Rust programming language is quite amazing. It comes with an integrated package manager for smoother use of the structured elements of the Rust programming framework.
Ruby is primarily used for coding hybrid programs for executing applications on both iOS and Android. It reduces the overall time and helps developers to come up with excellent features in the application. However, its learning curve is steeper.
Another high-level programming language often used for developing mobile applications is Perl. It is a dynamic language that helps in creating some of the best application software programs.
Best Languages for developing mobile apps for the web platform
HTML is the most basic version of the programming language that is used to develop the UI codes of the frontend portion of the application. The latest version, HTML5 is used in combination with other languages to develop multiple frameworks and mobile applications that will be rendered on the client-side server.
CSS is a styling scripting language that is used to add styles, colors, width, height, dimensions, and several other features of every UI element you have included in the application. Besides, it is used with HTML to form the roadmap of the application to be run on the web browser.
It is a low-level compilation language that is often used to develop web applications using structured binary packages.
General purpose languages (for both Android and iOS)
C++ is one of the best programming languages used to date after Java. Several coding frameworks are based on C++, like Flutter.
Python is an object-oriented programming language that is often used to develop websites and applications. It has an easier learning curve and offers more leverage to the developers to come up with the most innovative solutions.
HTML5 is a scripting language used to render the software on a client-side server.
XML is a file format used to develop APIs or programs that establish interaction between the backend and several other third-party applications.
C is the mother language and is often considered the mother tongue.
Go or Golang programming language is also considered one of the best programming languages that can be used to develop applications of different types.
R programming is used in statistical analysis with which graphs, charts, and several other such representative outputs can be generated.
How to choose the best programming language for app development?
- You first need to decide if you want to develop a native or cross-platform app.
- Check the learning curve and the ease of developing the mobile app.
- Always go for the programming language whose codes can be mutated with ease.
In this brief, we have explained the major programming languages that will help you develop the best mobile app. We have listed the general languages and the ones used for cross-platform apps. You need to weigh the options and ensure it is ideal for your app project.